India’s AIDS response: the missing voices of persons with disabilities

  • Satendra Singh
Keywords: Blind, Deaf, Persons with disabilities, Health services accessibility, HIV/AIDS Programming, HIV infections, Sex factors, Vulnerable population

Abstract

India has the third largest number of people living with HIV in the world. The UNAIDS Gap report has identified twelve risk groups that are especially vulnerable and have been left behind from the national AIDS response. Of these twelve, one is persons with disabilities. Disability is both a public health issue and a human rights issue; persons with disabilities are the world’s largest minority. Low awareness, sexual abuse, and lack of access to health services are the major reasons for people with disabilities being vulnerable. While the gap report is a landmark report, in that it compartmentalizes the risk groups, disability cannot be looked at in isolation. Since any of the other risk groups may include persons with disabilities, the issue is a complex one meriting greater attention. The National AIDS Control Organization has completely ignored this group of persons. To efficiently close the gap, an integrated and disability-inclusive HIV response is needed so that people with different types of disabilities, their caretakers, healthcare professionals and society are empowered to fight the collective battle against HIV/AIDS.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

World Health Organization, The World Bank. World report on disability. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789240685215_eng.pdf?ua=1

UNAIDS, WHO, & OHCHR. Disability and HIV policy brief. 2008 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.who.int/disabilities/jc1632_policy_brief_disability_en.pdf

Kestelyn PG, Cunningham ET Jr. HIV/AIDS and blindness. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(3):208-13.

Monaghan L. HIV infection statistics for hearing and deaf populations: Analysis and policy suggestions. In Schmaling C, Monaghan L(Eds.), HIV/AIDS and Deaf Communities. Gloucestershire: Douglas McLean; 2006.

Groce NE, Rohleder P, Eide AH, MacLachlan M, Mall S, Swartz L. HIV issues and people with disabilities: a review and agenda for research. Soc Sci Med. 2013;77:31-40.

UNAIDS. People with disabilities. 2014 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2014/Peoplewithdisabilities

UNAIDS. The Gap Report. UNAIDS: Geneva, 2014. [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/co?ntentassets/documents/unaidspublication/?2014/UNAIDS_Gap_report_en.pdf.

Moll K. Too few to worry about? Or too many to ignore? The exclusion of people with disabilities from HIV programmes in India. Final Report. New Delhi: PMO-DFID; 2007 Mar [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.cbrforum.in/articles/Disability%20and%20HIV%20Final%20Report.pdf

Morrow M, Arunkumar MC, Pearce E, Dawson HE. Fostering disability-inclusive HIV/AIDS programs in northeast India: a participatory study. BMC Public Health.2007;7:125. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-125

Driedger D. Emerging from the Shadows : Women with Disabilities Organise. In Driedger D, Feika I, Gironbatres E (Eds). Across Borders. Charlotte Town, Canada: Gynergy Books; 1996.

Human Development Report 1995. United Nations Development Programme. New York: Oxford University Press; 1995 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/256/hdr_1995_en_complete_nostats.pdf

Rehabilitation International. Women & Disability: Fact Sheet. New York: RI Global; 2014 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.riglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/33FACTSHEET-RI_Factsheet_WomenAndDisability_FINAL1-1.pdf

Mohapatra S, Mohanty M. Abuse and activity limitation: A study on domestic violence against disabled women in Orissa, India. Orissa: Swabhiman; 2005 [cited 2014 Jan 1]. Available from http://swabhiman.org/userfiles/file/Abuse%20and%20Activity%20Limitation%20Study.pdf

The Hindu [Internet]. Man gets 10-year RI for raping his mentally challenged niece. 2014 Nov 1 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/kozhikode/man-gets-10year-ri-for-raping-his-mentally-challenged-niece-in-kozhikode/article6555183.ece

Times News Network. Mentally challenged girl gang raped in Manduadih. The Times of India [Internet]. 2014 June 13 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/varanasi/Mentally-challenged-girl-gang-raped-in-Manduadih/articleshow/36468197.cms

Agarwal K. Blind rape victim travels 45kms to file complaint. The Times of India [Internet]. 2014 July 12 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bareilly/Blind-rape-victim-travels-45kms-to-file-complaint/articleshow/38272089.cms

Express News Service. Visually impaired ‘raped’, 4 cops suspended for refusing to file FIR. . The Indian Express [Internet]. 2014 July 6 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/lucknow/visually-impaired-raped-4-cops-suspended-for-refusing-to-file-fir/#sthash.evIVzO2W.dpuf

Times News Network. Minor, deaf & dumb girl raped in Gwalior. The Times of India [Internet]. 2014 Aug 23 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/Minor-deaf-dumb-girl-raped-in-Gwalior/articleshow/40757301.cms

Times News Network. Deaf-mute girl raped in Kandhamal. The Times of India [Internet]. 2014 Jun 16 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhubaneswar/Deaf-mute-girl-raped-in-Kandhamal/articleshow/36640952.cms

Daruwalla N, Chakravarty S, Chatterji S, More NS, Alcock G, Hawkes S, Osrin D. Violence against women with disability in Mumbai, India. A qualitative study. SAGE Open. 2013; 3(3):1-9.

Times News Network. Hospital liftman arrested for assaulting disabled girl. The Times of India [Internet]. 2014 Oct 28 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/Hospital-liftman-arrested-for-assaulting-disabled-girl/articleshow/44954575.cms

Iglesias M, Gil G, Joneken A, Mickler B, Knudsen JS. Violence and Disabled Women. METIS project, European Unión DAPHNE initiative; 1998 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from https://docs.google.com/document/d/1O5EPb6T4VyAUGN5Om1ZiI6Igq0qHaOG4H-sEI8f-Zd8/preview?hl=en_US

Groce N, Trasi R. Rape of individuals with disability: AIDS and the folk belief of virgin cleansing. Lancet. 2004;363:1663-4.

Frye BA. Review of the World Health Organization’s report on disability prevention and rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Nursing. 1993;18(1):43-4.

Bhatnagar GV. MCI asks all medical institutions to be ‘accessible.’ The Hindu [Internet]. 2013 Apr 18 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-newdelhi/mci-asks-all-medical-institutions-to-be-accessible/article4628862.ece

Bhatnagar GV. Most medical colleges ignore directive on facilities for disabled. The Hindu [Internet]. 2013 Aug 12 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-newdelhi/most-medical-colleges-ignore-directive-on-facilities-for-disabled/article5014252.ece?textsize=large&test=1

Gohain MP. Medical colleges flout disabled-friendly rules. The Times of India [Internet]. 2014 July 30 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/City/Delhi/Medical-colleges-flout-disabled-friendly-rules/articleshow/39253372.cms

National AIDS Control Organisation, Department of Health & Family Welfare. Annual Report 2013. [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.naco.gov.in/NACO/Quick_Links/Publication/Annual_Report/NACO_Annual_Report/Annual_Report_2013-14/

United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. United Nations Enable [website]. New York: United Nations; 2006. [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?id=259

HIV and AIDS data hub for Asia and Pacific. 2013. [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.aidsdatahub.org/

Groce NE, Trasi R, Yousafzai A. Guidelines for inclusion of individuals with disability in HIV/AIDS outreach efforts. Washing DC: The World Bank; 2008 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lc-ccr/downloads/hivguidelines/HIV_Guidelines_on_Disability_-_World_Bank_-_ENGLIS.pdf

Indian Council of Medical Research. XII plan document (2012-2017). New Delhi: ICMR; 2012 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://icmr.nic.in/Publications/plan/ICMR%20XIIth%20Plan%20(2012-2017).pdf

The world we want 2015. Include people with disabilities in the SDGs. 2013 Jan 8 [cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.worldwewant2015.org/node/290838

Perappadn BS. MCI pulled up for failing in its social responsibility. The Hindu [Internet]. 2014 Sept 17 [Cited 2015 Jan 1]. Available from http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-newdelhi/mci-pulled-up-for-failing-in-its-social-responsibility/article6417505.ece

Published
2015-01-02
How to Cite
Singh, S. (2015). India’s AIDS response: the missing voices of persons with disabilities. Research & Humanities in Medical Education, 2, 3-10. Retrieved from https://www.rhime.in/ojs/index.php/rhime/article/view/39
Section
Review